BCM 310: BCM 310, Emerging issues in Media and Communication, Chapter 10 Globalization and the Media

BCM310: BCM310: Emerging Issues in Media and Communication chapter 10 Globalisation and the Media (Comparative Media Studies).

Date: 25 May 2014

In the tenth week of BCM 310, we discussed globalization and the media, and how globalization impacts media, and vice-versa.

To Faulconbridge and Beaverstock (2008, pp331-343) globalization is “the widening, deepening and speeding up of global interconnectedness”. This has culminated in a “shrinking world” in which transnational flows of media, information, people and goods are facilitated (Eijaz & Ahmad 2011, pp100-106). Globalization is facilitated by perpetual rapid technological changes (Eijaz & Ahmad 2011, pp100-106). With interconnectedness, globalization has also altered the way media functions. Conversely, the media has transformed the world into a global village, whereby boundaries are shattered (Eijaz & Ahmad 2011, pp100-106).

Global television broadcast invades our living room. Elsewhere, the internet enables brisk efficient economic activities across space (Eijaz & Ahmad 2011, pp100-106). Reality shows like The Kardashians and singing contests like The Voice are viewed worldwide. In India, localized versions of the American sitcom “Friends” and the Game show “Who Wants to be a Millionaire”, called “Hello Friends” and “Kuan Benega Crorepati” respectively, adopt the western formats of television programs (Sinclair & Harrison 2004, pp41-54). In “Kuan Benega Crorepati”, although the host is Indian, his clothing, and accent are “westernized” (Sinclair & Harrison 2004, pp41-54). English is spoken throughout most of the show. This reflects the diminishing of Indian culture through homogenization of culture which, in the final analysis, is an impact of globalisation. In the process, new slurs emerged. For e.g. Hinglish is a slur, which incorporates English with Hindi, popular among urban middle classes (Sinclair & Harrison 2004, pp41-54).

Furthermore, globalisation has given rise to new contents in local shows with very strong western influence. The impact of globalization upon television programs also extends towards the demand upon local television programs. In Malaysia, many people subscribe to ASTRO and instead of watching local productions, many of us prefer to watch foreign programmes. In short, globalisation has led to American domination on television programs in many countries (Tay & Turner 2008, pp71-81). Clearly, globalization has taken over our media channels. And the impact is huge, with some people labelling the effect of globalization upon their media channels as a “cultural invasion” (Sinclair & Harrison, 2004).

Another impact of globalization on the media channels stems from the Internet. Continuous global integration has led to an increasing demand for internet and for those with access to it, faster internet. Also, information is far more accessible online in comparison to contemporary media channels such as television or radio, rendering former media channels less effective and thus, less preferable. Tay and Turner (2008, pp71-81) contend that in Australia, television advertising, being on the decline, is being replaced with online advertising, another sign that globalisation has definitely and significantly impacted the way media works (Tay & Turner 2008, pp71-81). In Malaysia, the number of locally produced films lags behind the imported ones (Herwina Rosnan, Mohd Nazari Ismail and Norzaidi Mohd Daud, 2010).

The general consensus is that globalization has altered the media in many countries. However, Voltmer (2008, pp23-40) highlights that “The role of the state vis-à-vis the media is usually regarded an antagonistic one, especially in new democracies where censorship and state interference is one of the main legacies of the past regime”. To me, it demonstrates the limitations of globalization in impacting the media. Politics triumphs globalization. Politics leads, legal follows, and media tag along. Thus, globalization does not always affect media.

(500 words)

 


 

References

 

Eijaz, A & Ahmad, R, E 2011,‘Challenges Of Media Globalization For Developing Countries’, International Journal of Business and Social Science, vol.2, no.18, pp100-106, accessed 24/5/2014, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/docview/904529702.

 

Faulconbridge, J.R & Beaverstock, J.V 2008, ‘Globalization: Interconnected Worlds’, Hollway, vol.19, pp331-343, accessed 24/5/2014, http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/24132_19_Hollway_Ch_19.pdf.

 

Naim, M 2004, ‘Globalization – passing fad or permanent revolution?’, Harvard international review, vol.26, no.1, pp83-84, accessed 22/5/14, http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/docview/230946526

 

Sinclair, J & Harrison, M 2004, ‘Globalisation, Nation, and Television in Asia: The Cases of India and China’, Television and New Media, vol.5, no. 1, pp41-54, accessed 24/5/2014,
http://tvn.sagepub.com/content/5/1/41.short.

 

Tay, J & Turner, G 2008, ‘What is Television: Comparing Media Systems in the Post-broadcast Era’, Media International Australia, vol.1, no.126, pp71-81, accessed 24/5/2014, http://ey9ff7jb6l.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/summon.serialssolutions.com&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&rft.genre=article&rft.atitle=What+Is+Television%3F%3A+Comparing+Media+Systems+in+the+Post-broadcast+Era&rft.jtitle=Media+International+Australia%2C+Incorporating+Culture+%26+Policy&rft.au=Tay%2C+Jinna&rft.au=Turner%2C+Graeme&rft.date=2008-02-01&rft.issn=1329-878X&rft.issue=126&rft.spage=71&rft.epage=81&rft.externalDBID=n%2Fa&rft.externalDocID=907493952716742&paramdict=en-US.

 

Voltmer, K 2008, ‘Comparing media systems in new democracies: East meets South meets West’, Central European Journal of Communication, vol.1, no.1, pp23-40, accessed 24/5/2014,
http://ptks.pl/cejc/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/CEJC_Vol_1_No1_Voltmer.pdf.

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BCM310, Emerging issues in Media and Communication, Chapter 9 Race, Ethnicity and the Media

BCM310: BCM310: Emerging Issues in Media and Communication chapter 9 Race, Ethnicity and the Media.

Date: 18 May 2014

In the ninth week of BCM 310, we discussed Race, Ethnicity and the Media, how races and ethnicity are portrayed in the media, and how this impacts the way people view others from different races and cultures.

Although often depicted as the land of milk and honey where opportunities abound and diversities embraced, the US is home to ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is the opinion that one’s own ethnic ways are superior to others or “judging other groups as inferior to one’s own”, culminating in prejudices and stereotypes. Ethnocentrism in the US dates back to the 19th century, when slavery was introduced.

 

Ethnocentric stereotype of Black People

 

Minstrel Poster

An Example of “Black Stereotypes” in Media in early 19th Century.

An Example of “Black Stereotypes” in Media in early 19th Century.(Raj 2014)

Image URL: http://tvaraj.com/2014/05/28/blackface-and-the-minstrel-show/

 

It was a time when the media portrayed black people as thieves, unintelligent, lazy lechers and “pathological liars” (Mahony, 2009). It heralded an era of “minstrel shows”, in which white actors, disguised as “black people” with exaggerated lip sizes donned torn clothes and applied burnt cork or shoe polish to darken their faces (Mahony, 2009). Serious episodes of ethnocentrism have now gravitated towards the Arab and Muslim community (Alsultany 2013, pp161-169; Huesmann et. al 2012, pp556–570).

Today, emboldened behind pseudonyms, racists exploit the Internet to spew hateful racist remarks. American media attitudes towards Muslim Americans can, at best, be described as negative and unappealing, spawning Islamophobia, which translated to “a threat that is generally related to Islam and Muslims.” At worst, Muslims are depicted as “a threat to world peace” (Bodissey, 2011). Fed by the fervors of war, the evils of ethnocentrism have resulted in extreme border surveillance (Perera 2002, p1). Fearing enemies within their midst, “the racialization, criminalization and targeting of suspect groups” is nurtured. What transpired are the ‘Patriot Acts’ in the United States, the White Paper on citizenship in the U.K, new anti-asylum seeker policies throughout the European Union and ‘Border Protection’ in Australia (Perera 2002, p1).

 

Mini Documentary on Modern Day ethnocentric stereotyping of Arabs and Muslims

 

 

Video URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogjm0DC-xAQ

Stereotyping Muslims (This Reality Bites 2007)

 

Online sites like “The Conversation” exemplify the role of the media in highlighting racial issues. In this site, academic Jon Stratton, contends that many non-white migrants entering Australia’s middle class are gravitating towards “honorary whiteness” (referred to as “model minority” in the US). Asylum seekers who fail to adopt “white values” are deemed “bad migrants”, while those who adopt white mannerisms gain more acceptance.

Post 9/11 saw an increase in sympathetic depictions of Arabs and Muslims on US television (Alsultany 2013, pp161-169). Often depicted as a terrorist, another “positive” portrayal of an Arab or Muslim is added to the storyline to counter the negative representation (Alsultany 2013, pp161-169; Huesmann et. al 2012, pp556–570). The Arabs are often shown as the unjust target of hate crimes or as patriotic US citizens. On one hand, American media project themselves as a unifying force. On the other hand, they propagate blatant racist stereotypes. This is a dangerous game played by the media.

Despite the sympathetic depictions on US commercial television, after 9/11, hate crimes, workplace discrimination, and bias incidents have escalated. (Alsultany 2013, pp161-169; Bodissey, 2011). These senseless yet terrifying events have unfortunately gone unabated in the decade after 9/11 and even spreaded to other Western nations. Bodissey claims “Since 11 September 2001, the epithet ‘Islamophobia’ has increasingly become in vogue in Britain” (Bodissey, 2011), manifested through intolerance, discrimination, unequal treatment, prejudice, stereotyping, hostility, and adverse public discourse.” (Bodissey, 2013). “So, is the media a friend or a foe?”

(507 words)

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References

 

Alsultany, E, 2013,‘Arabs and Muslims in the Media after 9/11: Representational Strategies for a “Postrace” Era’, American Quarterly, vol.65, no.1, pp161-169, accessed 11/5/2014, http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_quarterly/v065/65.1.alsultany.html.

 

Baron Bodissey, 2011, What does Islamphobia mean?, accessed 12/5/14, http://gatesofvienna.net/2013/10/what-does-islamophobia-mean/.

 

Huesmann, L, R, Dubow, E, F, Boxer, P, Souweidane, V & Ginges, J, 2012, ‘Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents’, Journal Of Research On Adolescence, vol.22, no.3, pp556–570, accessed 11/5/2014, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.uow.edu.au/doi/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2012.00785.x/pdf.

 

Khorana, Sukhmani, 2013, ‘On Being an “Ethnic Killjoy” in the Asian Century’, The Conversation, accessed 11/5/2014, http://theconversation.com/on-being-an-ethnic-killjoy-in-the-asian-century-19833.

 

Mahony, M, 2009, ‘What’s all the fuss about “blackface”?’, Crikey, accessed 11/5/2014, http://www.crikey.com.au/2009/10/08/crikey-clarifier-whats-all-the-fuss-about-blackface/.

 

Perera, S, 2002, ‘What is a camp, what is its juridico-political structure, that such events could take place there?’, Borderlands E-Journal, vol.1, no.1, p1, accessed 11/5/2014, http://www.borderlands.net.au/vol1no1_2002/perera_camp.html.

 

Raj, A 2014, ‘“Blackface” and the Minstrel Show’, weblog post, Impressions, 31 Aug, accessed 3/6/14, http://tvaraj.com/2014/05/28/blackface-and-the-minstrel-show/.

 

This Reality Bites 2007, Stereotyping Muslims, accessed 3/6/14, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogjm0DC-xAQ.

BCM310, Emerging issues in Media and Communication, Chapter 8 Gender and the Media

BCM310: BCM310: Emerging Issues in Media and Communication chapter 8 Gender and Media.

Date: 10 May 2014

In the eighth week of BCM310, we examine how the portrayal of gender in media impacts people and their view of genders.

Berberick (2010, pp1-15) contends that rising Internet use, ridiculous weight-loss advertisements and modern music videos that exhibit women immodestly, are encouraging women to take perilous steps to achieve an unrealistic media-crafted ideal. They reinforce the sexist belief that the female counterpart is imperfect and by extension, the male gender is more superior. The objectification and stereotyping of women in media brings them shame and fear; it also induces the treatment of them as inhuman playthings and encourages sexual harassment, and worse (Berberick 2010, pp1-15). Women themselves are ‘trapped’ in a vicious cycle of low self-esteem, depression and sexual assault, in their desire to emulate a virtually unattainable standard.

The television series “The Newsroom” portrays the male characters as “admirable or brave” (Ryan & Lacob 2012). It symbolizes misogyny, pillorying women as helpless and histrionic (Ryan & Lacob 2012). When a female presenter is asked to appear on “News Night” because of her shapely legs, it screams objectification (Ryan & Lacob 2012). Sadly, the female character accepts it, illustrating media’s portrayal of how women view themselves.

Similarly, for generations, Disney has portrayed women as either good or bad. A good woman is one who is passive, victimized or destroyed. Men are depicted as more superior (Gopal 2013, pp119-121). Only few Disney films, such as “Mulan” and “Pocahontas” showcase women’s strengths and capability (Gopal 2013, pp119-121; Tanner et al. 2003, pp355-373). In a study of Disney films, it was discovered that family relationships were prioritized, the diversity of families was simplified, mothers were sidelined, and the role of fathers, amplified (Tanner et al. 2003, pp355-373). In the recent Disney film “Frozen”, based on “The Snow Queen”, by Hans Christian Anderson, the classic portrayal of the Snow Queen as a villain has been rewritten as the deuteragonist and the character Elsa is manifested as a more misunderstood, kind-hearted, intelligent, playful character. Sadly, Disney’s portrayal of women has not changed over time as it merely transforms her from an intimidating tyrant to that of a weaker princess persona; again a stereotype of women, so typical of Disney films. The role of Disney films cannot be underestimated. Research has indicated that fairy tales help to mould a child’s view of the world (Gopal 2013, pp119-121). It is at their most impressionable age that they learnt, through Disney films, about the stereotypical roles of man and woman and are exposed to the conservative ways of thinking about the family system and feminist roles in fairy tales. Clearly, the media play a significant role in shaping perceptions.

Despite having an influential economic and cultural clout, the media fail miserably in its representation of women (Marcotte 2013). Commenting on the rape and murder trial of Adrian Ernest Bayley, Ford laments that the media give coverage to those women “we value most – the pretty, white, middle class, loved one” (Ford 2013). Martin, a 65 year-old sex worker and Jill Meagher, a pretty, white, middle class woman were murdered, a year apart, by the same man, Bayley (Ford 2013). Unlike Martin, Meagher’s death received nationwide coverage (Ford 2013). Thus, even if they give coverage to women, there is bias in media representation.

(500 words)

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References

Berberick, S, N 2010, ‘The Objectification of Women in Mass Media: Female Self-Image in Misogynist Culture’, The New York Sociologist, vol.5, no.1, pp1-15, accessed 1/5/2014, http://newyorksociologist.org/11/Berberick2011.pdf.

Gopal, B, M, B, K 2013, ‘The Construction of Family in Selected Disney Animated Films’, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, vol.3, no.11, pp119-121, accessed 1/5/2014, http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_11_June_2013/13.pdf.

Ford, C 2013,‘How did we let Adrian Bayley happen?’, DailyLife.com.au., 14 June, accessed 1/5/2014,
http://www.dailylife.com.au/news-and-views/dl-opinion/how-did-we-let-adrian-bayley-happen-20130613-2o67f.html.

Marcotte, M 2013, ‘Gender Inequity in Public Media Newsrooms’, weblog post, MVM Consulting, March, accessed 1/5/2014,
http://www.mikemarcotte.com/2013/03/gender-inequity-in-public-media-newsrooms.html.

Ryan, M & Lacob, J 2012, ‘“The Newsroom”: Women Problems Abound in Aaron Sorkin’s HBO Series’, weblog post, Huffingtonpost.com, 7 Feb, accessed 1/5/2014,
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/maureen-ryan/the-newsroom-women-aaron-sorkin-hbo_b_1641982.html.

Tanner, L, R, Haddock, S, A, Zimmerman, T, S & Lund, L, K 2003, ‘Images of Couples and Families in Disney feature-length animated Films’, The American Journal of Family Therapy, vol.31, no.5, pp355-373, accessed 1/5/2014, http://www.ijhssnet.com/journals/Vol_3_No_11_June_2013/13.pdf.

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